By David Woolley, Visit Amazon's Adam Woolley Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Adam Woolley,
This functional, easy, and informative textual content surveys easy rules of toxicology. it's a useful advisor to comparing toxicity and comparable info, forthcoming toxicity trying out and interpretation, and figuring out the strategies of risk prediction and threat evaluation and management.
A consultant to useful Toxicology:
- examines easy methods to review quite a few teams of chemicals—pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and agrochemicals
- provides insights on toxicity choice, normality and naturality, prediction, and regulation
Two all-new chapters cover:
- safety pharmacology
- evaluation of other chemical classes
Read Online or Download A Guide to Practical Toxicology: Evaluation, Prediction, and Risk, Second Edition PDF
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Extra info for A Guide to Practical Toxicology: Evaluation, Prediction, and Risk, Second Edition
Genetics Genetics may affect the response to a chemical through differences in the way in which it is handled, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. The most common factor is variation or deﬁciency in metabolic enzyme activity. Early discoveries of this were made with isoniazid and debrisoquine, both of which were associated with genetic polymorphisms—slower acetylation of isoniazid and deﬁcient hydroxylation of debrisoquine. There is great variation in paracetamol (acetaminophen) metabolism among individuals by a factor of up to ten, the highest rate being comparable to that in the most sensitive animal species (hamsters) and the lowest to that in the least sensitive (rats).
Blood Supply The blood is the main vehicle for distributing chemicals of all kinds around the body, and it is logical that the blood supply is important in deﬁning the degree of exposure of individual tissues to the chemicals in the blood, endogenous as well as foreign. The liver receives all the blood supply from the gastrointestinal tract via the inferior vena cava, from where it goes to the heart and thence to the lungs. Thus, chemicals absorbed in the gut go to the liver, the main site of xenobiotic metabolism, and are distributed with any persistent metabolites to the heart and then on to the lungs and kidneys, which receive 25% of the cardiac output via the aorta.
Those that are active without prior metabolism are often intrinsically reactive or have activity at speciﬁc receptors on the cell membrane or in the cell itself. Corrosive substances tend to act from outside the cell and have widespread effects that result in the deaths of many cells but in a different manner to toxicants that work from the cell membrane or inside. In other words, in corrosion, there is no initial molecular event that could said to be the initiating reaction in starting toxicity.