By Joanna Radwanska-Williams
The overall idea of language of Mikołaj Kruszweski (1851-1887) is, this e-book argues, a “lost paradigm” within the historical past of linguistics. the idea that of 'paradigm' is known in a commonly construed Kuhnian experience, and its applicability to linguistics as a technology is tested. it really is argued that Kruszewski's concept used to be a covert paradigm in that his significant paintings, Ocerk nauki o jazyke ('An define of the technological know-how of Language', 1883), had the capability to be seminal within the heritage of linguistics, i.e. to accomplish the prestige of a 'classical text', or 'exemplar'. This capability used to be no longer learned simply because Kruszewski's impression was once hindered via a variety of old components, together with his early loss of life and the simultaneous consolidation of the Neogrammarian paradigm, with its emphasis on phonology and language switch. The e-book examines the highbrow history of Kruszweski's concept, which was once rooted, partly, within the culture of British empiricism. It additionally discusses Kruszewski's dating to his instructor Jean Baudouin de Courtenay (1845-1929), his angle in the direction of the Neogrammarian stream in linguistics, the ambivalent reception of his thought through his contemporaries, and the effect of his paintings at the linguistic conception of Roman Jakobson (1896-1982).
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Extra info for A Paradigm Lost: The linguistic thought of Mikołaj Kruszewski
The methodology was that of measurement of a stimulus-response situation. ). 4 Note that this 3 For a discussion of Helmholtz's role in the institutionalization of experimental psychology, see Woodward & Ash (1982:147-166). 4 For an evaluation of Fechner's psychophysics, see Woodward & Ash (1982:65-87). HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 23 is very close to Descartes' thesis of the interaction of body and soul. Fechner determined experimentally, by recording his subjects' reported reactions, that an increment in the intensity of a sensory stimulus was not arithmetically proportional to the increment in the subject's perception of the stimulus.
18 A PARADIGM LOST source of ideas was experience. For example, according to Locke's analogy of the tabula rasa, the mind is blank at birth and comes to bear the imprint of the collected experience of the individual. Therefore, the formation of the mind was accessible to scientific observation. The common factor in these two conceptions of mind is the question of relationship between mind and body. At the same time as the Copernican and Galilean revolution in celestial mechanics, advances in physiology, for example William Harvey's (1578-1657) discovery of the circulation of blood, produced a revolution in the conception of the body.
Two of the difficulties presented by Wundt's methodology were the unreliability of introspection and the tendency towards a mechanistic reductionism. e. the conscious attention of the subject and the subject's reporting of his experience. Introspection had been a long-standing part of speculative philosophy, but the individual differences in subjective experience imposed a limit on measurement, and were difficult to integrate into an experimental program oriented to quantification. Therefore, there was a tendency to reduce higher mental functions into component parts which would be amenable to measurement.