By Vivienne Sanders
A new version for HL alternative 2, historical past of the Americas, subject 17: Civil rights and social routine within the Americas post-1945
The well known IB degree heritage sequence, combining compelling narratives with educational rigor.
An authoritative and fascinating narrative, with the widest number of resources at this point, supporting scholars to enhance their wisdom and analytical talents. This moment variation provides:
- trustworthy, transparent and in-depth narrative from subject specialists
- research of the historiography surrounding key debates
- devoted examination perform with version solutions and perform questions
- TOK aid and historic research inquiries to support with all points of the Diploma
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Additional resources for Access to History for the IB Diploma. Civil rights and social movements in the Americas
Welfare dependency Reliance on federal aid. How did the federal government respond to increased Native American assertiveness? President Lyndon Johnson (1963–9) and Native Americans Native Americans were among the greatest beneficiaries of Johnson’s War on Poverty, although some of them disliked the resulting welfare dependency culture. Johnson appointed a Native American to head the BIA in 1966, and his 1968 Civil Rights Act contained an ‘Indian Bill of Rights’, designed to protect Native Americans from both white and tribal dictatorship.
Termination of reservations Congress disliked tribal self-government and in 1953 increased the state governments’ jurisdiction over reservations. In order to try to stop taxpayers having to subsidize Native Americans, and to release reservation lands for white economic development, Congress ‘terminated’ some reservations, especially where the Natives were few, poor, and on land that might prove valuable to white men. For example, scattered bands of poor, illiterate Utah Paiutes were ‘terminated’ because it was believed there was oil and uranium on their land.
Some organizational experience had been gained. When many Church-educated Indians became advocates of Native rights, the Churches adopted less aggressively assimilationist policies. In 1945, responsibility for Native health was transferred from the Department of Indian Affairs to the Department of National Health and Welfare, which contributed to some improvement in Indian health. Although a special parliamentary committee report on the Indian Act (1948) ‘demonstrated continued Euro-Canadian disregard for the traditions of Canada’s first peoples’ (Finkel and Conrad, 1993), the revised Indian Act of 1951 ended the ban on potlatches and Sun Dances.