By Christian Ullrich, Jürgen Wolff von Gudenberg
The most important ambitions of the ESPRIT venture 1072, DIAMOND (Development and Integration of exact Mathematical Operations in Numerical Data-Processing), have been to advance a collection of exact numerical algorithms (work package deal three) and to supply instruments to aid their implementation by way of embedding actual mathematics into programming languages (work package deal 1) and by way of transformation suggestions which both increase the accuracy of expression assessment or notice and dispose of presumable deficiencies in accuracy in current courses (work package deal 2). the current quantity mostly summarizes the result of paintings package deal 2. It contains examine papers in regards to the improvement and the implementation of self-validating algorithms which immediately be sure the result of a numerical computation. Algorithms for the answer of eigenvalue/eigenvector difficulties, linear structures for sparse matrices, nonlinear structures and quadrature difficulties, in addition to computation of zeros of a fancy polynomial are offered. The algorithms constantly carry assured effects, i.e. the genuine result's enclosed into sharp bounds.
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Nine visually assessed characteristics of an FNA sample considered relevant for diagnosis were identified, and assigned an integer value between 1 and 10. The measured variables are as follows: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Clump thickness (v1 ); uniformity of cell size (v2 ); uniformity of cell shape (v3 ); marginal adhesion (v4 ); single epithelial cell size (v5 ); bare nuclei (v6 ); bland chromatin (v7 ); normal nucleoli (v8 ); mitosis (v9 ). The diagnostics in the WBCD database were furnished by specialists in the field.
One way to solve this problem is to use a nature-inspired method: evolution. 4 a real-world problem—the Wisconsin breast cancer diagnosis (WBCD) problem—serves to illustrate the application of evolutionary fuzzy modeling. A. Peña Reyes: Coevolutionary Fuzzy Modeling, LNCS 3204, pp. 27-50, 2004. ” The models proposed by Zadeh present three distinguishable features: (1) the use of linguistic variables in place or in addition to numerical variables, (2) the description of simple relations between variables by conditional fuzzy statements, and (3) the characterization of complex relations by fuzzy algorithms.
There exist two approaches for the application of evolutionary techniques in the design of rule-based systems in general: the Michigan approach and the Pittsburgh approach; these two approaches are also applied to classifier systems. In the Michigan approach, each individual represents a single rule, and the classifier list is represented by the entire population. The strengths calculated by the bucket-brigade algorithm are used as fitness function to evaluate the quality of each classifier. In the Pittsburgh approach, the genetic algorithm maintains a population of candidate classifier lists, with each individual representing an entire list.