By I M Kolthoff
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The ratio of acid to salt If is 100, pH = pHA However, when the ratio is 1/100, pH = pHA + The 2. 2. ratio of acid to salt should never exceed 100 or fall below 1/100, for then the buffer* action of these mixtures is lost. 7, can be prepared from a salt and The its acid. best buffer mixtures are obtained by mixing equivalent of acid and salt. The application of buffer mixtures amounts be taken up later under the discussion of the colorimetric determination of hydrogen ion concentration. will Buffer capacity and buffer index.
Evidently the the of the and reaction solution at this temperature is corre- spondingly more acid. Conversely, in a solution of a salt of a strong base and weak acid, the hydroxyl ion exponent at 100 is likewise lowered to the same extent. In solutions of salts of the weak acid-weak base type, both pH and pOH diminish equally with increasing temperature. 7. The reaction in a mixture weak base and its salt. of a weak acid and its salt, or a Buffer mixtures or regulators. A weak acid is split only partially into ions.
Walker: J. Chem. , Smith: Z. physik. , 26, 144, 193 (1898). Tower: Z. physik. 61, 696 (1892). , 18, 17 (1895). McCoy: J. Am. Chem. , SO, 688 (1908). Chandler: J. Am. Chem. , 30, 694 (1908). Enklaar: Chem. Weekblad, 8, 824 (1911). Dhatta and Dhar: J. Chem. , 107, 824 (1915). Thorns and Sabalitschka: Th. , 6%, 567, 1378 (1919). , 60, 1227 (1917). THE REACTION OF is ACIDS, BASES, small compared with c for in this case Ki 9 practical purposes, and equation is (46) AND SALTS + 21 equals c for simplified to c [H+] all (47) This expression always permits an approximate calculation of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution of an acid salt.