By Bernhard Sonnleitner
With contributions by means of quite a few specialists
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Extra info for Advances in Biochemical Engineering - Biotechnology. - Bioanalysis and Biosensors for Bioprocess Monitoring
A buffer or diluent stream can help to extend the useful dynamic range of the biosensor. The analyte arrives at the biosensor by passing a suitable membrane which enhances selectivity and protects the biosensor. An additional mechanical shield in the form of a mesh, grid or frit may be necessary to assure mechanical stability in the highly turbulent zone External chromatographs and FIA systems can be regularly recalibrated but the sterile interface cannot. A further possibility to gain some information about the reliability of a measurement is to mount a number (>1) of identical sensors in easy to compare positions and to check the individual signals for equality.
In any case, a strict standard operating procedure (SOP) must be followed to assure at least reproducibility. Figure 27 shows a useful SOP which might require some modifications depending on the characteristic properties of cell suspensions. Wet weight determinations are by far less accurate since a defined water content is not easy to arrange reproducibly. 2 Cell Number Concentration Determination of the cell number concentration (cell counting) requires that cells are suspended singly. If this is not the case in the culture, an additional step 44 B.
G. an antibody. When exposed to the antigen, an antibody–antigen complex will be formed on the surface and shift the resonance frequency of the crystal proportionally to the mass increment which is, in turn, proportional to the antigen concentration. A similar approach is used with surface acoustic wave detectors  or with the surface plasmon resonance technology (BIAcore, Pharmacia). Generally, biosensors are tricky to handle. g. an enzyme or a living microorganism [208, 209], they principally cannot be sterilized.