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By Gordon L. Atkins

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45 5. 1 The more important hormones controlling energy metabolism Abbreviations: AA FFA TAG KB hypoglycaemia injury/stress Cortisol Effect on protein synthesis! glucose uptake! amino acid release! protein synthesis! glucose uptake! FFA utilisation! glycogenosis! glucose uptakel protein synthesis! glucose uptake! glycogen synthesis! Muscle amino acids free fatty acids triacylglycerols ketone bodies: acetoacetate and ß-hydroxybutyrate FFA release! hypoglycaemia hyperglycaemia FFA release! stress glucose uptake!

KB synthesis! glycogenosis! gluconeogenesis! AA catabolismi KB synthesis! glycogen synthesis! glucose release! KB synthesis! g. so that excess glucose is converted into triacylglycerols and not oxidized. The three important methods for control are as follows. First, hormones control the flow of metabolic fuels between organs. Secondly, intermediates within the cell control the rates of various pathways. Thirdly, the maximum rate of a pathway is controlled by the amounts of enzymes present. These three controls act at different levels within the cell and over different time scales.

The other two important precursors for gluconeogenesis are glycerol (from triacylglycerol hydrolysis) and lactate (from anaerobic glycolysis in other tissues). Lactate is not, however, a net source of glucose. 31 glucose free fatty acids η acyl coenzyme  glucose6-phosphate l fructose diphosphate C3 pyruvate CO2 ammo acids Fig. 2 Free fatty acid synthesis This pathway is different to that for /3-oxidation and occurs in the cytoplasm of cells. The starting point is acetyl coenzyme A and part of the sequence has similar types of reaction to /3-oxidation except that NADPH provides the hydrogen for the reductive steps.

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