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By D. Welbourne and P. Hammond (Auth.)

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Amplifier with Vg and zero alternately. c. amplifier and the chopper relay, to give voltages VA, VB and Vc. c. amplifier has a balanced differential input, with, in fact, two separate inputs. The output is given by the gain times the difference between the two input voltages. c. c. Vg iï Voltage V c has a mean level : - N Vg FIG. 8. e. the amplifier now amplifies (Vg-Vc) by -M, giving output Vc = —M(Vg— Vc). Now Vc= —NVg, so the final output is Ve=-M(N+l)Vg. c. stage only. c. stage is Vd, referred back to the input as if it occurred there, we have V0=-M{Vg+Vd-(-NVg)}.

The presence of the synchronous chopper relay circuit introduces noise at the chopper frequency. This is normally the mains frequency, the chopper being driven from the heater supply, although 400 c/s choppers are used occasionally. ERROR ANALYSIS Consider an amplifier with voltage Vg dit its input grid and gain — M, drawing no grid current. V s\Qbr^Z · e o r t h ' i 1 11 i= · I · · - Ψ · j · \ 1 I * f I f ^ 4 Ô I 1 4- ^ F I G . 9. ^_ Power eorth— -*^ ELECTRONIC 35 36 ANALOGUE COMPUTING METHODS Then the current balance gives " V—V £ _J î = o, i=0 Also, Therefore where Z 0 is the feedback impedance.

X)-j ii\) 18. The next step is to find the values of the gains shown in the block diagram appropriate to the equation constants considered. This is the process of scaling. The physical quantity x in the equation must be related to a voltage Vx in the simulation. e. (1) νχ = bx. x volts (2) Vx = 100 ( —j volts 52 ANALOGUE COMPUTING METHODS In (1), Z^has the dimensions of volts per physical unit; in (2), the physical quantity x is normalized and then multiplied by the factor 100 V. Both methods have their disadvantages in practice, the first causes muddle over the dimensions, and is cumbersome in use, the second gets mixed up on the page when writing out the equations and when drawing out the block diagrams.

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