By Howell G M Edwards; Peter Vandenabeele
Content material: advent; half I. ANALYTICAL equipment: advent; tools of Visualisation; Vibrational spectroscopy; X-Ray equipment; Nuclear concepts; tools of separation; Mass spectrometry; Electrochemical innovations; half II. fabrics: Ceramics and enamels; Glass; Stone; Gemstones/minerals; Obsidian; Pigments and dyes; Icons and work; Metals / corrosion; Biomaterials; Resins, bitumens, tar, coal; Ivory and bones; wooden; Textiles; modern fabrics; half III: QUESTIONS: identity; Authentication; expertise of construction; Provenancing; relationship; Degradation and conservation; nutritional reconstruction; precis; Index
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6). Because the spectral response of common silicon detectors found in the current DSCs decreases quite rapidly towards shorter wavelengths, the effect of such a modification is most noticeable when imaging the NIR waveband. Notwithstanding, the DSC’s responsivity to NUV radiation increases as well, although its sensitivity is far more modest in absolute terms. As was mentioned before, the cut-off wavelength for these imagers is at circa 1100 nm, while the cut-on wavelength can be situated in the 320 nm–370 nm range (for an in-depth overview of sensor sensitivity and DSC modification, see Har35 and Verhoeven29,36).
G. f/8 or f/11)—with corresponding extended depth of field—will largely solve most of these focus errors. Too small apertures may be counterproductive, as diffraction effects start to come into play and shutter speeds become lengthy. 77 For smaller objects, NIR emitting LEDs can also be employed. 2 Chapter 1 Results Not until the 1930s were NIR sensitive emulsions relatively available, allowing photographers to practise this new technique with a certain ease and certainty. From this period onwards, the possibility to visualise an often subtle, dissimilar behaviour of materials in the NIR helped heritage researchers and archaeologists to depict certain object characteristics not (or less) apparent to the human eye.
126,127. 121. By employing a commercial digital stereo camera and a pair of readily available optical filters, a cheap system could be assembled to acquire multi-spectral data in a practical and fast way, while additionally offering 3D stereo imagery. Such systems might have the potential to expand the usage of multispectral imaging, as most equipment has so far only been affordable for the most resourceful institutions. 122 To view, pre- and post-process the huge amounts of data, Methods of Visualisation 35 dedicated software is needed.