By Richard T. Di Giulio, David E. Hinton
Bought this booklet for my brother whos doing his PhD in fish toxicology, He turns out proud of it.
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Obtained this e-book for my brother whos doing his PhD in fish toxicology, He turns out pleased with it.
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1986) and median lethal concentration (open circles; see Saarikoski and Viluksela, 1981) of several substituted phenols for guppies. Dotted line denotes the expected uptake rate constant based on the value of the constant at pH 3 and the assumption that uptake is proportional to the fraction of the chemical in exposure water that is un-ionized. pHs. This indicates that the pH dependence of toxic water concentrations is largely attributable to processes that affect accumulation; thus, toxicity as well as accumulation can be an indicator of bioavailability, at least for assessing the effects of pH.
3) did not vary among treatment groups. These ﬁndings were interpreted as evidence that simple diffusion controls the rate of uptake across the gut epithelium. Using an in situ channel catﬁsh intestinal preparation, Doi et al. (2000) showed that the bioavailability of [14C]-3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl ([14C]-PCB 77) varied with the fatty acid composition of lipid micelles and that these differences were related to the ability of micelles to solubilize the compound. These observations suggest that dietary absorption of hydrophobic compounds depends on the capacity of lipid micelles to deliver chemical to the gastrointestinal epithelium and possibly on regional differences in fatty acid absorption.
Ammonia toxicity to ﬁsh has been reported to be reduced due to increases in the hardness or salinity of test water. Causes for this have been suggested in work with the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ankley et al. (1995) reported ammonia toxicity to H. azteca to be lower in hard test water than in soft test water, especially at low pH. Borgmann and Borgmann (1997) further found that the toxicity of ammonia to H. azteca was reduced by sodium, but not by calcium, and suggested that this effect is greater at low pH because mechanisms for transport of ammonium ion across ﬁsh gills are affected by the ionic composition of the water, whereas the passive transport of un-ionized ammonia is not.